CAN WOLF DOG'S BE SERVICE ANIMALS?
steps to start qualifying a animal for service.
Choosing Your Puppy (PAT)
AHA Puppy Aptitude Testing
CHOOSING THE RIGHT PUPPY FOR THE RIGHT HOME!
Getting a dog or puppy on impulse is rarely a good idea. Remember that
dogs, like cars, were designed for a particular function. You need to
decide what you
want, a Corvette or a Suburban, a Fox Terrier or a Newfoundland, or learn about wolfdogs by visiting various wolfdog sites on the net.
When the various breeds were originally developed, there was a greater
emphasis on the ability to do a job, such as herding, guarding, hunting,
drafting, etc., than appearance. If a particular breed interests you,
find out first what the dog was bred to do. There are so many different
breeds to choose from and if there is a secret to getting that “perfect
puppy”, it lies in doing your homework.
DECIDING WHAT KIND OF WOLFDOG FOR SERVICE TO GET AND THEIR PERCENTAGES THAT PLAY INTO THE FACTORING METHOD.
The well-trained dog begins with some idea of what role the dog is
expected to play in your life and then selecting a dog that is suitable
for the job. Following are some of the reasons for selecting a dog:
• Playmate for the kids;
• A special activity, such as hunting, herding, breeding, showing in conformation, or competing in performance events;
• Status symbol (not wise); or
• A combination of the above.
Some dogs are able to fill all of these expectations, while others have more limited talents.
Getting a dog for a status symbol usually means one of the guarding or
rarer breeds, and often these represent some special challenges. If you
want a rare breed, first find out why it is such a rare breed and if
there are any potential drawbacks.
Conversely, one of the most
popular dogs and number 1 in American Kennel Club registrations is the
Labrador Retriever. The reason is simple - it is a good multipurpose
dog that can serve as a companion and playmate for the kids, is
naturally protective, generally enjoys good health, makes a good guide
dog, and with little time and effort can be transformed into a well
You also need to take into account your own
life style and circumstances. For most of us this means a dog that can
satisfy our need for companionship, is easily trained and doesn’t
require a lot of upkeep.
KEEPING UP APPEARANCES
Everyone has his or her own preference and there is an enormous choice,
from the four-pound Yorkshire Terrier to the 200-pound Mastiff. Many
dogs come in different sizes, such as Poodles, or Schnauzers. Other
have a smaller version that is similar in appearance, such as Collies
and Shelties, or Dobermans and Miniature Pinschers, or German Shepherds
and Corgis, or Greyhounds and Whippets, the “poor man’s race horse”.
Tidbits: Poodles and Terriers don’t shed but have to be groomed
regularly. Unless you are willing to spend the time and effort learning
how to do it yourself, this means periodic visits to a professional
groomer, an expensive proposition.
Breeds with long hair
require more upkeep than those with short hair. Pretty obvious when you
think about it, but often completely overlooked when selecting a puppy
or dog. Some breeds, like Briards, Poodles, Wirehaired Dachshunds and
Terriers don’t shed, a most desirable feature. On the other hand,
unless you are willing to learn how to groom your dog, it means regular
visits to the grooming parlor, visits that are not cheap.
breeds, such as terriers and some of the herding dogs, bark a lot more
than others. If you live in an apartment such a dog would not be a good
Bet You Didn’t Know: Why do the breed standard for
many dogs sound so similar when describing the dog’s temperament?
Because so many of them were written by the same man. In 1874, J.H.
Walsh, under the pen name of Stonehenge, published “The Dog: Its
Varieties and Management in Health”, the first major effort to describe
the more than 60 breeds recognized at that time.
THE TIME FACTOR
In selecting a WOLFDOG puppy be aware of the time factor. How much
exercise does this particular breed require and are you in a position to
give it to your dog? Some breeds require less exercise than others,
but many require 2 daily 20-minute walks, at a minimum, and some, such
as the Sporting breeds, much more. Just letting the dog out in a
backyard is not sufficient.
In the selection process you need
to remind yourself continuously that your dog is going to be with you
anywhere from 8 to 16 years. And, the older he or she gets, the more
important regular exercise becomes.
How much time do you have
available to devote to training that cute little bundle of fur? If you
have little or no more that 10 to 15 minutes a day, then you need to
select a breed that is easily trained and doesn’t require much exercise OR BONDING AS THE WOLFDOG.
WHAT ARE YOU LOOKING FOR
A good place to start is The Complete Dog Book by the American Kennel
Club, which describes the breed standards for the different breeds
recognized by that organization. Two other excellent resources are Roger
Caras Dog Book: A Complete Guide to Every AKC Breed (Dorset Press,
1992) and Paws to Consider: Choosing the Right Dog for You and Your
Family by Brian Kilcommons and Sarah Wilson (Grand Central Publishing,
Another wealth of information can be found at dog shows,
where you can see a large variety of breeds and talk to their owners
and breeders. But remember, they are obviously and naturally biased.
To help you get the dog you want we have devised a simple test which is
amazingly accurate in predicting inherited behavioral tendencies and
how the puppy will turn out as an adult.
WHAT IS PUPPY TESTING?
Some of the tests we use were developed as long ago as the l930’s for
dogs bred to become Guide Dogs. Then in the 1950’s, studies on puppies
were done to determine how quickly they learned. These studies were
actually done to identify children’s learning stages.
Tips: The ideal age to test the puppy is at 49 days of age when the
puppy is neurologically complete and it has the brain of an adult dog.
With each passing day after the 49th day the responses will be tainted
by prior learning.
Later on in the early 60’s more tests were
developed to determine if pups could be tested for dominance and
submission. These tests determined that it was indeed possible to
predict future behavioral traits of adult dogs by testing puppies at 49
days of age. Testing before or after that age, effected the accuracy of
the test, depending on the time before or after the 49th day.
We took these tests, added some points of our own for the wolfdog, and put together what is
now known as AHA Puppy Aptitude Test, or PAT. PAT uses a
scoring system from 1-6 and consists of ten tests. The tests are done
consecutively and in the order listed. Each test is scored separately,
and interpreted on its own merits. The scores are not averaged, and
there are no winners or losers. The entire purpose is to select the
right Wolfdog puppy for the right home.
The test, ARIZONA HYBRID ASSOCIATION WOLFDOG PUPPY TEST, are as follows:
1. Social Attraction - degree of social attraction to people, confidence or dependence, how well adjusted your wolfdog pup is.
2. Following - willingness to follow a person, and look for alpha leadership (pack up).
3. Restraint - degree of dominant or submissive tendency, and ease of handling in difficult situations, will your wolfdog pup take his lumps..by the Alpha, or other's in the pack (human's ect)
4. Social Dominance - degree of acceptance of social dominance by a person, seen as the Alpha or other pack members.(humans) ect.
5. Elevation - degree of accepting dominance while in a position of no
control, such as at the veterinarian or groomer/owner of the wolfdog pup.
Retrieving - degree of willingness to do something for you. Together
with Social Attraction and Following a key indicator for ease or
difficulty in training.
7. Touch Sensitivity - degree of sensitivity to touch and a key indicator to the type of training equipment required. Wolfdogs are wired for sound...many rewards for training in various forms are indeed helpful. ( praise/treats ect)
8. Sound Sensitivity - degree of sensitivity to sound, such as loud noises or thunderstorms. Wolfdogs are indeed dialed into their surroundings.
9. Sight Sensitivity - degree of response to a moving object, such as chasing bicycles, children or squirrels. For wolfdogs we call it prey drive.
10. Stability - degree of startle response to a strange object, wolfdog puppies can be either inquisitive, or frightened by new objects, so please make it pleasant as possible as they will start to do associations with it.
During the testing make a note of the heart rate of the pup, which is
an indication of how it deals with stress, as well as its energy level.
Puppies come with high, medium or low energy levels, this could also be in play with percentages of wolf heritage or nothern breed characteristics bred into them. You have to
decide for yourself, which suits your life style. Dogs with high energy
levels need a great deal of exercise, and will get into mischief if
this energy is not channeled into the right direction.
look at the overall structure of the puppy. You see what you get at 49
days age. If the pup has strong and straight front and back legs, with
all four feet pointing in the same direction, it will grow up that way,
provided you give it the proper hight protein diet and environment befitting a wolfdog in which to grow.
If you notice something out of the ordinary at this age, it will stay
with puppy for the rest of its life. He will not grow out of it.
HOW TO TEST YOUR WOLFDOG PUP/CUB
Here are the ground rules for performing the test:
• The testing is done in a location unfamiliar to the WOLFDOG puppies. This
does not mean they have to taken away from home. A 10-foot square area
is perfectly adequate, such as a room in the house where the puppies
have not been.
• The puppies are tested one at a time.
• There are no other dogs or people, except the scorer and the tester, in the testing area
• The puppies do not know the tester.
• The scorer is a disinterested third party and not the person interested in selling you a puppy.
• The scorer is unobtrusive and positions him or herself so he or
she can observe the puppies’ responses without having to move.
• The puppies are tested before they are fed.
• The puppies are tested when they are at their liveliest.
• Do not try to test a WOLFDOG puppy that is not feeling well.
• Puppies should not be tested the day of or the day after being vaccinated as they are not feeling well, or at top peak.
• Only the first response counts!
Top Dog Tips: During the test, watch the puppy’s tail. It will make a
difference in the scoring whether the tail is up or down.
tests are simple to perform and anyone with some common sense can do
them. You can, however, elicit the help of someone who has tested
puppies before and knows what they are doing.
attraction - the owner or caretaker of the wofdog puppies places it in the test
area about four feet from the tester and then leaves the test area.
The tester kneels down and coaxes the puppy to come to him or her by
encouragingly and gently clapping hands and calling. The tester must
coax the puppy in the opposite direction from where it entered the test
area. Hint: Lean backward, sitting on your heels instead of leaning
forward toward the puppy. Keep your hands close to your body
encouraging the puppy to come to you instead of trying to reach for the
puppy, this can be a little scary for the pup, as he is now looking for his pack leader.
2. Following - the tester stands up and slowly walks
away encouraging the puppy to follow. Hint: Make sure the puppy sees
you walk away and get the puppy to focus on you by lightly clapping your
hands and using verbal encouragement to get the puppy to follow you.
Do not lean over the puppy.
3. Restraint - the tester crouches
down and gently rolls the puppy on its back and holds it on its back
for 30 seconds. Hint: Hold the puppy down without applying too much
pressure. The object is not to keep it on its back but to test its
response to being placed in that position.
4. Social Dominance
- let the puppy stand up or sit and gently stroke it from the head to
the back while you crouch beside it. See if it will lick your face, an
indication of a forgiving nature. Continue stroking until you see a
behavior you can score. Hint: When you crouch next to the puppy avoid
leaning or hovering over the puppy. Have the puppy at your side with
both of you facing in the same direction.
Top Dog Tips: During
testing maintain a positive, upbeat and friendly attitude toward the
puppies. Try to get each puppy to interact with you to bring out the
best in him or her. Make the test a pleasant experience for the puppy.
5. Elevation Dominance - the tester cradles the puppy with both hands,
supporting the puppy under its chest and gently lifts it two feet off
the ground and holds it there for 30 seconds.
6. Retrieving -
the tester crouches beside the puppy and attracts its attention with a
crumpled up piece of paper. When the puppy shows some interest, the
tester throws the paper no more than four feet in front of the puppy
encouraging it to retrieve the paper.
7. Touch Sensitivity -
the tester locates the webbing of one the puppy’s front paws and presses
it lightly between his index finger and thumb. The tester gradually
increases pressure while counting to ten and stops when the puppy pulls
away or shows signs of discomfort.
8. Sound Sensitivity - the
puppy is placed in the center of the testing area and an assistant
stationed at the perimeter makes a sharp noise, such as banging a metal
spoon on the bottom of a metal pan.
9. Sight Sensitivity - the
puppy is placed in the center of the testing area. The tester ties a
string around a bath towel and jerks it across the floor, two feet away
from the puppy.
10. Stability - an umbrella is opened about five feet from the puppy and gently placed on the ground.
SCORING THE RESULTS
Following are the responses you will see and the score assigned to each
particular response. You will see some variations and will have to
make a judgment on what score to give them.
Came readily, tail up, jumped, bit at hands
Came readily, tail up, pawed, licked at hands
Came readily, tail up
Came readily, tail down
Came hesitantly, tail down 5
Didn’t come at all 6
Followed readily, tail up, got underfoot, bit at feet
Followed readily, tail up, got underfoot
Followed readily, tail up
Followed readily, tail down
Followed hesitantly, tail down
Did not follow or went away
Struggled fiercely, flailed, bit
Struggled fiercely, flailed
Settled, struggled, settled with some eye contact
Struggled, then settled
No struggle, strained to avoid eye contact
Jumped, pawed, bit, growled
Cuddled up to tester and tried to lick face
Squirmed, licked at hands
Rolled over, licked at hands
Went away and stayed away
Struggled fiercely, tried to bite
Struggled, settled, struggled, settled
No struggle, relaxed
No struggle, body stiff
No struggle, froze
Chased object, picked it up and ran away
Chased object, stood over it and did not return
Chased object, picked it up and returned with it to tester
Chased object and returned without it to tester
Started to chase object, lost interest
Does not chase object
8-10 count before response
6-8 count before response
5-6 count before response
3-5 count before response
2-3 count before response
1-2 count before response
Listened, located sound and ran toward it barking
Listened, located sound and walked slowly toward it
Listened, located sound and showed curiosity
Listened and located sound
Cringed, backed off and hid behind tester 5 5
Ignored sound and showed no curiosity
Looked, attacked and bit object
Looked and put feet on object and put mouth on it
Looked with curiosity and attempted to investigate, tail up
Looked with curiosity, tail down
Ran away or hid behind tester
Hid behind tester
Looked and ran to the umbrella, mouthing or biting it
Looked and walked to the umbrella, smelling it cautiously
Looked and went to investigate
Sat and looked, but did not move toward the umbrella
Showed little or no interest
Ran away from the umbrella
WHAT DO THE SCORES MEAN?
The scores are interpreted as follows:
Mostly 1’s -
Strong desire to be pack leader and is not shy about bucking for a promotion
Has a predisposition to be aggressive to people and other dogs and will bite
Should only be placed into a very experienced home where the dog will be trained and worked on a regular basis
Top Dog Tips: Stay away from the puppy with a lot of 1’s or 2’s. It
has lots of leadership aspirations and may be difficult to manage. This
puppy needs an experienced home. Not good with children.
Mostly 2’s -
Also has leadership aspirations
May be hard to manage and has the capacity to bite
Has lots of self-confidence
Should not be placed into an inexperienced home
Too unruly to be good with children and elderly people, or other animals
Needs strict schedule, loads of exercise and lots of training
Has the potential to be a great show dog with someone who understands dog behavior
Mostly 3’s -
Can be a high-energy dog and may need lots of exercise
Good with people and other animals
Can be a bit of a handful to live with
Needs training, does very well at it and learns quickly
Great dog for second time owner.
Mostly 4’s -
The kind of dog that makes the perfect pet
Best choice for the first time owner.
Rarely will buck for a promotion in the family
Easy to train, and rather quiet.
Good with elderly people, children, although may need protection from the children
Choose this pup, take it to obedience classes, and you’ll be the star, without having to do too much work!
Tidbits: The puppy with mostly 3’s and 4’s can be quite a handful, but
should be good with children and does well with training. Energy needs
to be dispersed with plenty of exercise.
Mostly 5’s -
Fearful, shy and needs special handling
Will run away at the slightest stress in its life
Strange people, strange places, different floor or ground surfaces may upset it
Often afraid of loud noises and terrified of thunder storms. When you
greet it upon your return, may submissively urinate. Needs a very
special home where the environment doesn’t change too much and where
there are no children
Best for a quiet, elderly couple
If cornered and cannot get away, has a tendency to bite
Top Dog Tips: Avoid the puppy with several 6’s. It is so independent
it doesn’t need you or anyone. He is his own person and unlikely to
bond to you.
Mostly 6’s -
So independent that he doesn’t need you or other people
Doesn’t care if he is trained or not - he is his own person Unlikely to bond to you, since he doesn’t need you.
A great guard dog for gas stations!
Do not take this puppy and think you can change him into a lovable bundle - you can’t, so leave well enough alone
INTERPRETING THE SCORES
Few puppies will test with all 2’s or all 3’s - there will be a mixture of scores.
For that first time, wonderfully easy to train, potential star, look
for a puppy that scores with mostly 4’s and 3’s. Don’t worry about the
score on Touch Sensitivity - you can compensate for that with the right
Tidbits: It’s hard not to become emotional
when picking a puppy - they are all so cute, soft and cuddly. Remind
yourself that this dog is going to be with you for 8 to 16 years. Don’t
hesitate to step back a little to contemplate your decision. Sleep on
it and review it in the light of day.
Avoid the puppy with a score of 1 on the Restraint and Elevation tests. This puppy will be too much for the first time owner.
It’s a lot more fun to have a good dog, one that is easy to train, one
you can live with and one you can be proud of, than one that is a
CHOOSING A BREEDER
Once you have
done your research and you have decided which breed is most suited to
your lifestyle and expectations, it is time to choose a breeder. You
can meet breeders at dog shows, through the local newspaper, or popular
dog Magazines, such as The American Kennel Club Gazette, Dog World or
Here are some of the criteria you want to follow in selecting a breeder:
• Choose an experienced breeder, one who has had several litters and who knows his breed.
• Choose a breeder who has shown his dogs and has done some winning,
which is a fairly good indication that his or her dogs conform to the
standard of the breed and will grow up looking like the dogs you saw
that attracted you to the breed in the first place.
• Choose a
breeder who understands Puppy Aptitude Testing. If he or she hasn’t heard
of it, show it to them; avoid one that says “I don’t believe in that.”
• Choose a breeder whose dogs are certified by the applicable
registries against breed-related genetic disorders, such as eyes, hips,
etc when genetic disorders run thru a particular breed line.
• Choose a breeder where you can interact with adult dogs, and get some idea how long they live.
• Choose a breeder where the dogs are well housed and everything is clean.
The majority of breeders today show a great willingness to have their
puppies tested, and are interested in the results. It shows them the
inherited behaviors of their breeding stock, valuable information for
future breeding of wolfdogs. The results make it easier for them to place the right
puppy into the right home where people will be happy with them,, and knowledgeable on their particular care. After
all, no breeder wants a puppy returned when it's 8 months old and may
have been ruined by being improperly brought up.
do, don’t try to pick a puppy by having the entire litter together - you
will not be able to pick the right one for you. Always interact with a
puppy individually, away from its litter mates.
GETTING A DOG FROM A SHELTER or A RESCUE.
Don’t overlook an Animal Shelter as a source for a good dog. Not all
dogs wind up in a shelter because they are bad. After that cute puppy
stage, when the dog grows up, it may become too much for its owner for various reasons. Or,
there has been a change in the owner’s circumstances forcing him or her
into having to give up the wolfdog. Remember than can be rehabbed, it just takes alot of time and work, as they may have developed so existing habits that are not workable for you. Key is work and lots of time invested. Wolfdogs indeed struggle with their independent nature, but also wanting to please a bit too. They are indeed worth the investment as they are uber connected to those who establish bonding.
Most of the time these dogs
are housetrained and already have some training. If the dog has been
properly socialized to people, it will be able to adapt to a new
environment, AND MAYBE YOUR DREAM DOG!!. Bonding may take a little longer WITH WOLFDOGS!, but once accomplished,
result in a devoted companion FOR LIFE!.
While you MAY/MAY NOT use the entire puppy test FOR YOUR WOLFDOG, there are some other tests that will give you a good indication of what to look for.
1. Restraint - try putting the wolfdog into a down position with some food,
and then gently rolling him over and see what happens. If the dog
jumps up and runs away or tries to bite you, this is not the wolfdog for
you. Rather look for a dog that turns over readily, but squirms around a
bit and will accept you as alpha. Apply just enough pressure to keep the dog on its back; ease up
if it struggles too much. Intermittent squirming is OK, constant
squirming is not OK. This may be dangerous if done on a strange older wolfdog, as he may see you as a threat.
2. Social Dominance - directly after the
Restraint Test, if the dog didn’t struggle too much and if you think
it’s safe, try sitting the dog and just stroking him, getting your face
relatively close to him talking to him softly, to see if he licks you
and forgives you for the upside down experience. A dog that wants to
get away from you is not a good candidate.
3. Retrieving - crumple
up a small piece of paper and show it to the dog. Have him on your left
side with your arm around him and throw the paper with your right hand
about six feet, encouraging the dog to get it and bring it back. You are
looking for a dog that brings the paper back to you, however this the dog part of the animal...the wolf part may laugh at you...walk over and sniff it..pick up or drop it. They are like cats...they just may not care to act on command. Woldogs can be very independent. Remember their biology comes into play.
trainers have the greatest faith in this test. A dog that retrieves
nearly always works out to be a Guide Dog because it indicates a
willingness to work for the owner good for the doggy part in the animal. Other organizations that use dogs
from a shelter, such as those who use dogs to sniff out contraband or
drugs, and police departments, place almost sole reliance on this test.
They know that if a dog brings back the object, they can train him to
do almost anything.
Wherever you get your dog, use the tests
that you can do and act accordingly. By the way, it’s not too late to
use some of the tests with the dog you already have. It just might
explain some of your dog’s behaviors.
THE LEAST YOU NEED TO KNOW
• There are many breeds to choose from and if there is a secret in getting that “perfect puppy”, it is doing your homework.
• A good place to start is “The Complete Dog Book” by the American
Kennel Club, which describes in detail the different breeds recognized
by that registry.
• Carefully consider the time you have available for the necessary up-keep and exercise the dog requires.
• Don’t get a dog on impulse!
• Use the ARIZONA HYBRID ASSOCIATION 'S (AHA) Puppy Aptitude Test in selecting your dog, whether a puppy or an older WOLFDOG..